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Cardiac Sciences

Cardiac Science is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and the treatment of disorders related to the heart – its muscles, chambers and the blood vessels. This is an extremely important of medical science simply because it involves the heart, which is a vital organ that helps pump blood and supplies it to all the organs, tissues and cells in humans.

Cardiac sciences involves both medicine and surgery. A special doctor called a cardiologist looks after the branch of cardiac sciences. A cardiac surgeon is the one who conducts all types of heart surgery, including bypass surgery and cabg surgery.

Cardiology or cardiac sciences is a sensitive branch of medicine sciences that involves the treatment of many life-threatening conditions. There are several types of heart diseases such as coronary heart disease and arrhythmias and fatal heart events such as cardiac arrest and heart attack.

The arrhythmias are primarily treated with the help of cardiac science defibrillator. It is a special procedure used for the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Defibrillator cost varies from one hospital to another and from country to country.

Open heart surgery is a complex and a sensitive procedure that involves a lot of risks and complications. A lot of care needs to be taken after a patient undergoes any type of cardiac surgery or cardiothoracic surgery.

Pacemaker implantation is yet another surgery used for the treatment of abnormal heart rhythms. During a pacemaker surgery, an electrical device is implants into the chest of the patient, which sends low electrical impulses to the heart. The impulses makes the heart beat at a normal rhythm.

Procedures of Cardiac Sciences


Angiography, also called arteriography, uses a kind of imaging technique to view the arteries, heart chambers and veins by injecting a contrast agent into the blood vessels to get a clearer image.


Another medical term used for angioplasty is balloon angioplasty that uses a minimally invasive procedure, called endovascular procedure to inflate a balloon attached to the tip of the endoscope to clear obstructions in arteries and veins.

ASD closure/repair

A hole or opening between the upper two chambers of the heart is treated with ASD (atrial septal defect) closure or repair or heart cathertization. ASD closure or repair procedure is generally followed in children having an opening in the heart.

ASD heart port surgery

ASD heart port surgery is used to replace damaged heart valves in patients. During the heart port surgery procedure, a minimally invasive technique is used to insert a tube through the neck threaded to the blood vessels. Small ports are created between ribs and small tools are inserted through them to replace the damaged valve.


AVR (Aortic Valve Replacement) and MVR (Mitral Valve Repair) is a type of repair procedure used to treat dysfunctional heart valves. AVR/MVR open heart technique is used to treat narrowing of the heart valve and leakage.

Balloon Aortic

Due to calcium build up in the blood vessels, blood flow to the stenotic arotic valve gets obstructed. Balloon aortic procedure uses a balloon catherter through the valve to open the size of the valve by breaking the calcium build up.

Bentall procedure

Bentall procedure is described as the re-implantation of the arteries with replacement of the aortic valve, ascending aorta and aortic root. In short, Bentall procedure is composite graft replacement of the aortic valve, arotic root and ascending aorta.

BT shunt

BT Shunt procedure uses a shunt to attach the aorta with the pulmonary arteries. It is used to correct defects caused by inadequate flow of blood to the heart. The idea is to create a detour so that blood from your right ventricle reaches to your lungs.


Coronary artery bypass grafting CABG is a surgical procedure used to improve blood flow to the patient’s heart. CABG procedure is performed on patients suffering from coronary heart disease and is also called bypass grafting procedure.


Often, solely CABG procedure leads to ineffective mitral valve dysfunction, which is treated with AVR/MVR procedure. This is because after going through CABG surgery, patients may need arotic or mitral valve replacement.

CABG – Redo

Patients suffering from severe heart complication under CABG redo, which is a second level heart surgery. Often, sclerotic coronary disease and noncardiac arteries are treated best with CABG redo that uses a pump-off technique.

CABG with ASD/VSD closure

CABG plus ASD/VSD closure is required for patients who have holes in their heart chambers along with other heart defects. This is indeed a rare condition, but patients detected with the problem should undergo surgery immediately for survival.

CABG – High risk

CABG high risk surgery is needed for patients showing signs of high risk of heart attack, persistent and intolerable symptoms despite medical treatments and signs of arterial narrowing. When a patient’s medical report shows the EuroSCORE greater than 5, it means he has to undergo CABG high risk treatment.

Cabrol procedure

Cabrol procedure is used to treat thoratic arotic aneurysms. It is much safer and less invasive than open heart surgery and involves ascending arotic replacement by means of interposition graft.

Closed heart surgery

A closed heart surgery mostly deals with the arteries that carry blood, why an open heart surgery generally deals with the heart chambers. Besides, a closed heart surgery procedure is done by entering the chest from the front and the sides.


Coarctoplasty treats coarctation of the aorta and congenital heart disease that include inserting a stent. The purpose is to treat patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septic defect, bicuspid aortic valve and complex cardiac deformations.

Complex CABG

Pump on/off: This type of surgery is a kind of coronary artery bypass during which the heart keep beating, while surgery is done. This is the reasons why pump off- complex CABG is known as beating heart surgery.

Double valve replacement

The surgery involves replacement of the mitral and arotic valves with minimally invasive technique. The recovery time is five to seven months, but this may vary person to person. Double-valve replacement surgery is done under general anaesthesia.


EPS procedure uses electrode catheter that is inserted into the vein, with its other end attached to a switch box to record heart rhythm. On the other hand, RFA uses frequency energy at the exact spots to create superficial burns.


Fontan procedure is performed in children suffering from univentricular hearts. During the procedure, venous blood is guided from the IVC and SVC to the pulmonary arteries. Sometimes, Fenestration closure is done following Fontan to close holes in the heart.

Heart port surgery

Heart port surgery recovery time is shorter than open heart surgery. This is because during the heart port operation, small incisions are created in the patient’s chest to insert a portal with an attached tube to it.

ICD combo device

ICD implants allow a patient to keep tab of any abnormal heartbeat symptom. The implanst is a Heart Defibrillator that helps in detecting abnormal heartbeat. This procedure is suggested for patients who would not survive an open heart surgery.

Mini Sternotomy with RT Carotid Endartectomy

RT Carotid Endartectomy procedure chucks away plague builds up from the artery walls. The idea is to help restore proper flow of blood. The procedure is done with open heart surgery.


Also, referred to as three stage heart surgery, Norwood is an improved version of Fontan procedure. Norwood symptoms include left heart syndrome and mitral atresia. Norwood surgery connects systematic circulation right into the single ventricle.

Pacemaker Implant Double chamber

Pacemaker implant is required for patients whose hearts are not functioning properly. Pacemaker implant double chamber procedure helps to connect both the right atrium and right ventricle. The pacemaker is a small-battery charged generator that helps to pump blood in high quantity.

Pacemaker Implant single Chamber

Single chamber pacemaker implant is important for patients showing signs of concomitant symptomatic bradycardia and chronic atrial fibrillation. Compared to double chamber procedure, single chamber pacemaker implant requires shorter time.

PDA device closure under GA

PDA device closure is a procedure required in newly born babies when the ductus arteriosus does not get closed. Partly closed ductus arteriosus need immediate medical attention since its opening can affect normal blood flow.

PDA Disetion/Co Archation of Aorta/ BT Shunt/PA Banding

Patent ductus arteriosus or PDA is required to improve cardiac function, reduce systematic overload and minimize right to left shunting. PDA disetion treatment is suitable for those suffering from congestive heart failure.

Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

ASD/VSD/AV Repair, MV repair /Paediatric TOF: Padiatric cardiac surgery along with ASD/VSD is performed by a specialist on children who need to be treated for heart defects. The cardiologist uses a stethoscope to find out if the child’s heart is beating rhythmically or not.

Pediatric Cardiac surgery

Conduit Repair/ ASO/AV Canal Repair/ TCPC/Fontan/ASO/AV Canal Repair: Babies who are born with heart defects should undergo Padiatric cardiac surgery. However, the pediatric cardiac operation may be accompanied by ASO/AV canal repair,  depending on the severity of the condition.


It stands for total anomalous pulmonary venous connection which describes the abnormality of blood flow in the pulmonary veins. This is a rare cyanotic congenital heart problem which occurs in the pulmonary veins.

VSD Closure/Repair

VSD closure treatment is required to close openings into the lower ventricles. The holes generally develop at the time of birth, which if not treated may lead to heart attack in the patient in future.


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