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Urology is the special field of medicine associated with genitourinary surgery, a kind of surgical procedure that deals with medical diseases of both female and male urinary tract and also the male reproductive system.

The organs that come under the purview of urology surgery include the uterus, kidney, urethra, adrenal glands, male reproductive system (which includes penis, seminal vesicles, testes, prostrate, vas deferens, epididymis) and the urinary bladder.

Several urology-related problems include prostatitis, erectile dysfunction, kidney cancer, kidney stone, bladder cancer, bladder stones, interstitial cystitis, testicular cancer, and so on.A urologist or a specialist helps to treat prostate cancer, kidney stones and stress incontinence.

Urology procedures and tests include a long list in which the most basic test is 24-hour urine collection, while the others are ct scan of kidney, circumcision, cystography,

Genital and pelvic reconstruction, kidney biopsy, kidney cancer ablation, kidney transplant, laparoscopic cyst ablation, prostrate biopsy, radical nephrectomy, radical prostatectomy, vascectomy and retrograde pyelogram.

While all urinary disorders may not require surgical intervention, but some of the disorders can be treated with external therapies and medications such as urinary tract infections and prostatic hyperplasia. Antibiotic prophylaxis is administered on patients suffering from compromised immune function. Urology procedures are sometimes performed in combination with gynaecology, andrology and gastreoenterology.

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Procedures of Urology

Lap Pyeloplasty

This is a surgical procedure performed to correct any kind of blockage or narrowing of the ureter that drains and carries urine from the kidney into the bladder. Lap pyeloplasty surgery is recommendable since it involves less post-operative pain compared to conventional open surgeries. Besides, lap pyelopalsty recovery time is short and the person can return to work in few days.

Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy

Laparoscopic radical cystectomy is a successful alternative to an open radical cystectomy that is used to treat high-risk superficial bladder cancer. Besides, lapascopic radical cystectomy recovery time requires shorter hospital stay. The biggest advantage of laparoscopic radical cystectomy includes reduced blood loss that ensures quick recovery of patient.

Laser prostatectomy

As compared to traditional prostrate surgery, laser prostatectomy is performed for successful ‘’reborning’’ of the prostrate. In the process, laser is used to scoop out the inside of the prostrate by creating an electric loop. Laser prostatectomy procedure is done under general anaesthesia. Laser used during the procedure helps to vaporize the blood vessels that reduces bleeding or ensures no bleeding.

Optical internal Urethrotomy

The surgery involves removal of unwanted tissues. Optical internal urethrotomy procedure is an endoscopic process that uses an endoscopic device by creating an incision in the urethra. Optical internal urethrotomy risks include wound dehiscence, infection in the urinary tract, infection in operated place and excessive bleeding.

PCNL (Kidney)

PCNL, also known as percutaneous nephrolithotomy, is a minimally-invasive process that is administered to remove stones from the kidney. The PCNL procedure uses a small puncture through the skin. The procedure is done to remove stones from the pelvic region, which are more than 2 cm. A thin-light tube is inserted that has a camera at the end to help the doctor view the inside of the kidney.

Proximal Urethroplasty

Proximal urethroplasty is a procedure performed to repair any kind of defect or injury that is caused to the walls of the urethra. Full general anaesthesia is done during the surgery. Proximal urethroplasty procedure is associated with minimal post operative pain if epidural anaesthetic is administered.


RIRS, also known as retrograde intrarenal surgery, is done inside the kidney. A viewing tube, also called fiberoptic endoscope is inserted through the skin inside the kidney. The purpose of RIRS is to remove stone from the kidney. The advantage of RIRS include no prolonged pain, quicker solution to your problem and faster recovery.

Trans Urethral Resection of Bladder Tumor (TURBT)

Transurethral resection of bladder tumour procedure helps to detect if a person has bladder cancer. Further, the procedure helps to determine if cancer has attacked the muscle layers inside the bladder wall. The side effects of transurethral resection of bladder tumour include some bleeding and pain when you urinate.

Trans Urethral Resection of Prostrate (TURP)

Transurethral resection of prostrate (TURP) is a procedure performed for the treatment of prostrate enlargement. When the prostrate becomes large and is located between the bladder and the penis. Transurethral resection of prostrate (TURP) symptoms includes frequent urination, problems when starting to urinate and strain while passing urine.

Uretric Reimplantation

This is a surgical procedure performed to fix tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder. During the uretric reimplantation procedure, the idea is to change the position of the tubes so as to stop urine from getting back to the kidneys. Uretric reimplantation surgery takes several hours. A pediatric urology surgeon performs the operation on children.

Uretroscopic Removal of Stone (Bladder)

Uretroscopic removal of stone (bladder) is a non-invasive procedure that helps remove stone in the ureter. When stones get stuck in the ureter, situated closer to the bladder they can cause acute pain. During the retroscopic removal of stone procedure the urologist puts the cystoscope inside the urethra so as to move it to the bladder.


Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that cuts and ties the two ‘’vas’’ tubes. It is a method of sterilisation performed in men so as to prevent flow of sperm from the testicles to penis. Vasectomy effectiveness is not felt right away. It takes 15 to 20 ejaculations to stop the flow of sperms in semen. Local anaesthesia is given during Vasectomy procedure.

Vasectomy Reversal

While vasectomy is done to ensure permanent birth control, vasectomy reversal is performed to reconnect the male reproductive tract that was earlier interrupted by vasectomy. Vasectomy reversal recovery time varies from 5 to 14 days. It is performed as an outpatient surgery that can be conducted under general, regional and local anaesthesia.

Bladder neck incision

Bladder neck incision is done to improve the flow of urine to help the patient get relieved from the urinary pressure. The procedure of bladder neck incision is done with a telescope that is inserted through the urethra to the bladder neck. Bladder neck incision complications may involve bleeding and infection and pain.

Cystolithotripsy (laser)

Cystolithotripsy (laser) procedure is used to remove the bladder stone. This is an invasive method and is an advanced method. Cystolithotripsy (laser) indications are formation of stone inside the bladder and chronic bladder infection. Recovery of cystolithotripsy (laser) time is more than a week.


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